Journal of the University of Alicante's
Institute for Gender Studies Research
No. 27, June 2016
Comunicaciones y relaciones de género: prácticas, estructuras, discursos y consumo
Alejandra Hernández Ruiz
Marta Martín Llaguno (Coords.)
Woman figure has been poorly treated in war film. Traditionally, this genre has present stories from the male’s perspective. A stereotyped image of the female characters can be discovered, in her role as the man’s companion: wife of the missing soldier, campaign nurse, etc. The war fiction is certainly prone to stereotypes. To narrate the reality of war, which is almost always confusing and chaotic, each cycle chooses certain themes and motifs; and, therefore, it relies on stereotypes. Thus, the cycle of World War I promoted the character of the «madonna», the World War II, the woman who suffers the return of the veteran; and the Vietnam War, the woman who discovered the meaninglessness of war. In the Iraq War cycle the woman character has a more active and powerful presence in the story: she guides the film story. Through the analysis of 13 films, it has been confirmed that the cycle has preserved previous stereotypes, while it draws a new and original role for the women: the «female soldier».
Keywords: woman, stereotypes, Iraq War, war film, woman soldier.
Cinema is still a men’s field more than women’s, something that studies from the New York Film Academy, the Media, Diversity and Social Change Initiative or the Bechdel Test Movie List have backed up. However, statistics are slowly showing optimistic results, and Céline Sciamma is one of the women who are making them improve. She is a young French director, whom trilogy (Naissance de Pieuvres, Tomboy and Bande de Filles) is focused in women, specially little girls and teenagers, and how the puberty process affects their feelings and the discovery of their identity and sexuality. These pages will analyze how Sciamma is contributing to the seventh art with her films and how she transforms woman into an active subject, not a passive one, changing this way the established narrative structures in the prevailing cinema.
Keywords: cinema, woman, Céline Sciamma, feminism, identity, sexuality.
Taking as a starting point reading built around this famous film of the modern horror film, this analysis suggests an overall reading of his discourse about the woman. Try to recover what we have become accustomed to forget, or at best, to score because it has been overshadowed by other issues. And is that beyond Norman and splitting monster mother-son, in the second part of the film another female character, the other sister Crane appears. What symbolizes this (double) perspective Crane? The main hypothesis management to answer this question is that this representative text of the discourse audiovisual crisis Hollywood, the film signifier of femininity undergoing a symbolic split proposed by Marion and Lila. Through this narrative strategy that has meant the question of identity, discourse of the film dramatizes the modern way, excessively, an identity crisis of women in a historical period, the beginning of the sixties, significant changes to the cultural role expected of women in American society.
Keywords: reading, audiovisual narrative, identity, perspective, female investigator.
Gurinder Chadha and Mira Nair’s films define diaspora as a diaspora space where women are portrayed as change agents. This paper explores how Chadha and Nair provide a different representation and possibilities for South Asian women in the diaspora in the description of arranged marriages and interracial love relationships so that they present pioneering female characters that subvert orientalist misconceptions about the South Asian Subcontinent and South Asian women. By so doing, this essay confirms how Chadha and Nair’s selected films propose new postcolonial models that promote the construction of new roles for female characters in cinema that challenge the racial and gender inequality suffered by women in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the South Asian Subcontinent.
Keywords: South Asian diaspora, arranged marriage, interracial love relationships, cinema.
Newsreels had a wide social influence in creating social models. In this paper we analize the most popular female stereotypes related to the entertainment (cinema and theater) in postwar period. Beauty, attractiveness and a wonderful body were the most common attributes in the actresses appearing in Italian newsreels every week.
Keywords: women, Italy, Cinema, Newsreels.
In recent decades we have seen that older women’s ageing experience is experiencing changes focused on a more active ageing and the enhancement of values, attitudes and roles that break with negative stereotypes associated with this age group for many years. The aim of this paper is to analyse a sample of data and interviews published in El Mundo, El Diario Vasco newspapers and their supplements to know the type of people and issues where the current situation of these older women is present in the discourses disseminated by the press and whether that media presence somehow reflects this situation and the positive redefinition of female ageing that is being perceived in modern society.
Keywords: older women, the media, social roles, stereotypes, critical discourse analysis.
The research has a purpose based on the treatment of information’s female population. Through a content analysis we have observed El País and El Mundo news. The results suggest that the information concerning females acquire a negative and unequal approach. The text advocates the implementation of gender communication plans is the best option to eradicate gender stereotypes in media.
Keywords: press, gender, equality, visibility, power.
The spread of sport in the mass media is fundamental to its evolution; good use of them could contribute to more equitable societies in gender. The aim of this study is to analyse the spread of sports news on television from a gender perspective. The methodology used is descriptive and has a quantitative approach, performing a direct observation to study context: public television and two private televisions. For the collection of information has been employed a sheet for the observation. The results show that the disclosure of female sports news is significantly lower compared to the diffusion of male. The consequences of this unequal situation could affect the lack of promotion, appraisement and catchment of women’s sport that today is undervalued by the mass media.
Keywords: gender, sport, diffusion, media, equality.
This article intends to address how the processes of interpasivity, technology fetishism and comunicative capitalism articulates the ciberactivist praxis of the Spanish virtual communities against gender-based violence. Taking into consideration Jodi Dean’s theory on technology fetishism and communicative capitalism, Internet, cyberspace and virtual reality are considered as either fostering or preventing social changes when they address the possibility of becoming effective tools for the empowering of women and, therefore, they promote political self-awareness through online praxis against gender-based violence. Eleven of the main feminist virtual communities against gender-based violence will be analysed. Finally the ideals of Internet access, inclusion and cyberpaticipation.
Keywords: ciberactivism, feminist cibercommunities, activism against gender-based violence, technology fetishism, interactivity.
Media have been given an outstanding relevance to combat gender violence. The aim of this article is to discuss the limitations of the current hegemonic mode of recognition of gender-based violence if we want to update media discourse in order to deepen in the reality of the phenomenon and contribute to social change. A qualitative approach has been developed to put in the center of the research those journalists that make, frame and select gender-based violence news stories. 17 semi-structured interviews were made and, through discourse analysis, we analyze how journalists interpellate
the subjects of violence in the context of news production. It is argued that the current mode of recognition of gender violence fosters an individualized conception of violence that produces an objectified model of woman-victim considered lacked of
agency, who, eventually, is judged responsible of her own situation of violence.
Keywords: gender-based violence, media, recognition, discourse analysis, journalists.
The main objective of this research is to identify through the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) factors that drive uses, level of immersion and utilities the social media as well as potential motivations or barriers in micro and / or SMEs run by women in the region of Andalusia. This is a qualitative study through interviews in depth of 14 female entrepreneurs selected by non-probability sample and maximum variation sampling, in order to get a more representative spectrum of experiences of use and socio-demographic profiles. Female entrepreneurship has not studied a homogeneous level of involvement in the use of social media as a tool for their business, but they are aware of their effectiveness. Its future competitiveness will be highly contingent on the efficient use of virtual social networks that demand the new digital economy.
Keywords: Digital Female Entrepreneurship, Social media, Technology Acceptance model (TAM), Women micro entrepreneurs, 2.0 SMEs.
This article includes the legal, demographic and labour workforce in the context within a period of economic growth in Spain (2003-2007) which, however, turned out to be a missed opportunity as regards to the effective implementation of work-family and equal policies. In this period, the Spanish woman increases her rate of activity in the labour market in a greater proportion to the rest of the European labor workforce as women’s work. However Hispanic culture of long working hours and poor corporate leadership, proved to be a powerful break before two deep draft standards: the Law for reconciling work and family life (of November 5, 39/1999) and Organic Law for the effective equality of women and men (of March 22, LOIEMH, 3/2007). Several public health surveys and a study from a sample of 4,700 Spanish companies, among them are 38 companies in the media and advertising sectors, show a new aspect of the traditional gender gap between men and women: salary, promotion, representation in management positions. This article discusses the different uses of time, women’s dual
role and the effects on the correlations between stress and fertility, labour market and social sustainability.
Keywords: work-family balance, work schedules, gender equality.
The academic works that employ a gender perspective to the study of corporative communication and public relation professionals have not been systematized to date. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compile, review, synthesize and examine the scientific production related to the working environment of public relations or communication management with a gender perspective. For that, we did a systematic review. The study group has been formed by the articles published in English or Spanish in journals indexed in Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus and Proquest Central (Thematic Social Sciences) between 1992 and 2014. The main results of the research point to a recent, though discreet, interest in the study of this workplace in different geographical areas. Moreover, the most of the texts conclude that in the structures and in the processes of public relations and communication management some discrimination occurs.
Keywords: gender perspective; professional practice; public relations; communication management; scientific journals
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