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Feminismo/s 29. La (in)visibilidad de las mujeres en la Educación Superior: retos y desafíos en la Academia


FEMINISMO/S
Journal of the University of Alicante's
Institute for Gender Studies Research

No. 28, June 2017

 

La (in)visibilidad de las mujeres en la Educación Superior: retos y desafíos en la Academia
Marcos Jesús Iglesias Martínez
Inés Lozano Cabeza (Coords.)

INDEX

 

  • Marcos Jesús Iglesias Martínez and Inés Lozano Cabezas (Universidad de Alicante)
    Introducción 
    Introduction 
Bio-bibliographical review
How to submit a manuscript

Abstracts

  • Mónica Arenas Ramiro
    Universidad de Alcalá

    La igualdad de oportunidades en la carrera universitaria: conciliación y corresponsabilidad como medios para conseguirla 
    Equal opportunities in the university career: balance and corresponsibility as a means to achieve it

Despite the high female presence in the University, and the existence of norms that formally guarantee equality between women and men, reality continues to show that women do not enjoy the same opportunities as men to participate in university life. And, much less, to make an academic career. The perpetuation of gender stereotypes, as well as the lack of effective measures of conciliation and co-responsibility in domestic tasks and care, mean that women do not have the same opportunities as men for personal and professional development. The necessary constitutional recognition of women as subjects of rights and measures of conciliation and co-responsibility as anti-discrimination tools, coupled with a true involvement of the academic institution and its members, will allow, with the same rules of the game, to have the same opportunities and make women visible in a world designed by and for men, contributing to the design of a model of university and academic career more just and equal.

Keywords: work-life balance, co-responsibility, gender, equal opportunities, university.

  • Tomás J. Campoy Aranda, Manuela Balcázar Fines and Viviana Vega Duette 
    Universidad Nacional del Este (Paraguay) 

    Los estudiantes universitarios ante la violencia de género 
    The university’s students and gender violence

The aim of the study has been to learn about the beliefs the student body of the National University of the East (Paraguay) has about equality and gender violence as well as to determine the causes and risk factors so as to propose effective interventions that will help prevent occurrence of the problem and that will bring about change in society through education. The study was carried out in 2015 and it focused on students’ representations and experiences regarding gender violence, a survey was conducted among a sample of 467 students from all academic programmes at the university. The sample, from a total population of 5678 students, was put together through random sampling of conglomerates. The findings suggest that there are deep-rooted cultural norms that lead to a persistent violence and discrimination against women and that it is necessary to create programmes that will promote different cultural norms which will eradicate discrimination and gender violence. 

Keywords: gender, violence, equality, student body, university. 

  • Aurelia Flores Hernández and Lorena Jiménez Montes 
    Secretaría de Educación Pública del estado de Tlaxcala (México) 

    Socialización y sociabilidad de género en un escenario universitario altamente masculinizado 
    Socialization and sociability of gender in a masculinized university context  

The purpose of this article is to identify and to understand the challenges that university students face in the practices of sociability and codes of coexistence that they use as skills to interact with other people, in the daily life of a university context built socially for the masculine gender and, in which woman mimic the actions of those around them. We discuss the concepts of gender differential socialization and sociability, adopting the anthropology of experience like a methodological perspective, we use the application of interviews, and the study is qualitative. Findings suggest that in the university school system these practices of socialization and codes of coexistence are mediated by gender camouflage, useful and convenient for the continuity of a sexist and violent system that, although born before university, is remarkably resilient.

Keywords: gender, sociability, socialization, university

  • Aquilina Fueyo Gutiérrez 
    Universidad de Oviedo

    ¿Ya somos iguales? Visibilización de las desigualdades de género en la educación mediática de las estudiantes universitarias
    Are we already equals? Visibility of gender inequalities in media education of higher education female students 

In Media Education for educational professionals training we have taken up the challenge of incorporating a gender approach into activities that allow us to equip female university students with tools to identify the inequalities that affect them and to develop communicative strategies and audiovisual creations to work on them. In this article we show the results of a practice based research process wich we develop over several years. In it we analyze the contents, the characteristics of the audiovisual creations about the situations of inequality, the design of the activities and the pedagogical decisions that we adopt. Also we describe two specific cases that allow us to exemplify how these experiences show the gender inequalities that sometimes remain hidden in the higher education institutions and how they make the students to adopt a more conscious and active position against of these inequalities.

Keywords: Media Education, pedagogy, innovative practices, gender approach, higher education, practice based research.

  • Nazareth Gallego-Morón 
    Universidad Pablo de Olavide

    Más allá de las estadísticas. Invisibilización y negación de la discriminación de género en la Universidad 
    Beyond statistics. Invisibilization and denial of gender discrimination at university 

The statistical figures show the existence of a double gender discrimination in Argentine university: horizontal and vertical occupational segregation (glass ceiling). In addition, a review of the literature confirms the invisibilization and low awareness by the university teaching staff. This paper is part of a larger research on the participation of women and men at the National University of Salta (Argentina). The main objective of this article is to analyze the existence or not of gender discrimination at university and to deepen the perceptions of teachers have about it and the existing barriers and obstacles. For this, in the first place, a descriptive analysis of the participation of men and women in the Argentine University System. Second, the results of a survey applied to the total teaching staff of the National University of Salta are developed. These confirm a scant perception of the problem. Moreover, this denial is greater among men. The existence of informal power networks is singled out as the main barrier to advancement by both sexes.

Keywords: gender discrimination, occupational segregation, glass ceiling, university, Argentina.  

  • Ana García-Arroyo
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili
     
    Realidades y paradojas en la Educación Superior de India: (in)visibilidad de la mujer
    Realities and paradoxes of India’s Higher Education: woman’s (in)visibility

This article analyzes the most important problems of India’s Higher Education. It focuses on the changes that have been produced from the arrival of globalization at the beginning of the 1990s until now, which have direct implications on women. I will deal with the most relevant data in All India Survey on Higher Education 2014-15 by the Ministry of Higher Education (Indian Government), paying special attention to what these figures stand for in terms of representing the realities and paradoxes that affect women. Based on Martha Nussbaum’s philosophy on Higher Education (2010), the ultimate aim of this research is to demonstrate that the consequences derived from the implementation of a system of Higher Education, based on the market-oriented utilitarian Western model, have directly affected Indian women and will continue threatening their academic quality and their gender-class-caste equality.

Keywords: Indian woman, globalization, utilitarian education, present & future consequences.

  • Sara González Gómez
    Universidad de las Islas Baleares
    Andrés Payá Rico
    Universidad de Valencia 

    Ciencia y género: investigadoras en formación a finales del franquismo
    Science and gender: researchers in training at the end of Francoism

During the twentieth century, in parallel with the increase in the access to higher education, women began to break barriers in the field of research. The main aim of this study is to check the way in which women’s access to science was affected by the first call of the Plan for the Training of Research Personnel (1968), registered under the 2nd Economic and Social Development Plan (1968/71), and successive calls for pre and postdoctoral scholarships to do research in Spain or abroad, which were granted up to 1975. Through a quantitative analysis of the data, from a gender perspective, we will try to determine the different ways in which the presence of women in the Spanish scientific world began to become manifest and visible as well as to check the specialties or areas which were mostly masculinized, feminized or those that showed a clear trend towards equality.

Keywords: training scholarships, science, Francoism, woman, research staff. 

  • Lubi Granada Angulo
    Universidad Pedagógica Nacional
    Secretaría de Educación Distrital – Bogotá (Colombia) 

    Discriminaciones interseccionales: percepciones de mujeres afrodescendientes en espacios de Educación Superior en Bogotá
    Intersectional discriminations: perceptions of Afrodescending women in spaces of Higher Education in Bogotá  

This article is part of the exploration phase of the author’s Doctoral Thesis project. The purpose of the exercise is to identify perceptions of discrimination in higher education spaces in Bogotá (Colombia), which have three women of African descent. This work was carried out using the methodology of the Nuclei of Social Education (NES), strengthened through theoretical and investigative contributions related to the topic.
The weight of negative discrimination in the academic and work life of participating African descendants is evidenced, which has been constituted over time in intersectionality between categories susceptible of discrimination inside and outside the academy.

Keywords: negative and positive discrimination, higher education, intersectionality, women of African descent. 

  • Estrella Montes López  
    Universidad de Salamanca 

    La ausencia de corresponsabilidad, freno para el desarrollo de la carrera laboral femenina en la Academia  
    The lack of joint responsibility, brake for the development of the female career in Academia

This article presents part of the results of a research on the development of the career in the university. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship between academic work and family life through the analysis of in-depth interviews conducted to academics in a Spanish public university. On the one hand, the results of the research show the difficult work-life balance in academia. On the other hand, they show the discourse of the people interviewed about the lack of joint responsibility in couples as one of the causes of the unequal position of women in university.

Keywords: university, academic career, gender, working-life balance, joint responsibility

  • Elena Navarro-Astor, Arianna Guardiola-Víllora and Luisa Basset-Salom 
    Universitat Politècnica de València

    El profesorado de la Universitat Politècnica de València desde la perspectiva de género 
    Universitat Politècnica de València’s faculty from a gender perspective 

To measure is to know: The diagnosis is a prerequisite to solve any problem. In this paper the situation of the UPV’s faculty is analized in order to establish the degree of masculinisation of the teaching and research staff in its schools and departments. This quantitative description of the «de facto» situation at the time of the study shows the current imbalance at the institution: in addition to horizontal segregation, significant
vertical segregation is evident. The drastic decline in women´s proportion as one moves up to the academic hierarchy makes incidental their presence in some of the higher academic ranks. The existence of the glass ceiling in women’s academic careers at the UPV is undeniable. This study constitutes a first step for the future development of strategies, programmes and plans to achieve a balanced composition of its faculty.

Keywords: faculty; gender inequality; higher education; statistics; Universitat Politècnica de València.

  • Laura Nuño Gómez and Enrique Álvarez Conde 
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos

    Androcentrismo académico: la ficción de un conocimiento neutral 
    Academic androcentrism: the fiction of neutral knowledge

Spanish universities have a normalized presence of women and are bound by law to incorporate gender studies and a non androcentric perspective in teaching and research. Nevertheless, ceilings and glass walls remain, gender studies have not been mainstreamed and the different disciplines have androcentric views on knowledge. After the adoption of the so-called Bolonia Plan, far from implementing the legal duty, the treatment provided to gender studies in the Higher Education system has been peripheric. This article adresses this situation in public universities, hightlights some problematic elements as well as possible solutions.

Keywords: androcentrism, gender studies, higher education, equality policies, feminist theory.

  • María Inmaculada Pastor Gosálbez, Paloma Pontón Merino y Ana Acosta Sarmiento 
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili

    El acceso a la carrera investigadora desde la perspectiva de género ¿punto de inflexión?
    The access to the research career from a gender perspective. A turnig point? 

Pre and postdoctoral fellowships are currently the main access routes to the academic career in the Spanish university system. Diagnosing the factors involved in access, development and differential maintenance between women and men is an indispensable requirement for the implementation of measures aimed at achieving equality at work. Thus, in this research, we focus on these initial positions of the academic career. The objective is to know the working conditions and dynamics that are given by women and men during the first years of incorporation of teaching staff and researcher in training to the university. The study was based on a survey and in-depth interview with a sample of Research Staff in Training (PIF) of the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV). The data indicate that there are differences in the working conditions as well as in the motivations, teaching loads and expectations that can condition the differentiated development by gender of the research career.

Keywords: gender, academic career, university, inequalities

  • Helena Rausell Guillot and Marta Talavera Ortega 
    Universitat de València

    Dificultades de la coeducación en la formación del profesorado
    Difficulties in coeducation in teaching training 

Introducing gender perspective and sexual diversity in primary and early school education is heterogeneous right now in Spain. Our study focuses on gender implementation in the Master of Specific Didactics in the University of Valencia, as a part of the specialized teaching and researching training which is offered by the Teaching Training Faculty. The article also tries to design a methodological proposal in order to contribute to a specialized researching training from gender perspective.

Keywords: coeducation, gender, equality, teacher training, didactics.

  • Emanuela Sala
    University of Milano Bicocca (Italy)
    Roberta Bosisio
    University of Turin (Italy) 

    Gender inequalities in Italian academia. What future for female academics? 
    Desigualdades de género en la Academia italiana. ¿Cuál es el futuro para las mujeres académicas? 

In the last 20 years, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) has enacted two major reforms and passed a number of parliamentary acts that have radically changed the Italian academic system, e.g., the role of the permanent researcher was abolished and different types of fixed-term researchers were introduced. So far, very little is known on the effects of these reforms on men and women’s career progressions. Using a unique dataset that includes information on the whole Italian academic staff, this paper aims to provide an overview of the changes that the reforms introduced in the academic system and compare male and female scholars’ conditions within the university. The focus of the paper is on the young cohorts of academics who work as researchers. The main finding is that, in a context in which the selection and recruitment processes are not exclusively based on merit, the «gender neutral» MIUR reforms are contributing to the reproduction of the female disadvantage.

Keywords: women in science, gender inequalities, early career researchers, university reforms, women’s career.

  • Marina Tomàs-Folch 
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

    El liderazgo en la Universidad: el papel que tienen ellas 
    Leadership in university: the role that women have 

In this article we present three factors that determine in great part the equality of opportunities in universities with respect to the gender: the organizational culture in the university, the participation in the university management and the exercise of leadership. Quantitative and qualitative studies have been carried out in order to obtain professors’ perception of the institutional culture regarding gender, leadership and participation in decision making. The results show that there’s a persistant perception about stereotyped models of the leadership style of the departmental leaders identified with the social construction of the masculine, that there are forms of participation in the meetings of the governing bodies differentiated by the gender of the professors who participate and by the professor who lead, that certain features are found in the motivations and ways of exercising management positions in the university according to gender and that the leadership of the research is mostly in the hands of the male gender.

Keywords: leadership, university, women, participation, decision making.

  • Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino
    Instituto Universitario de Estudios de las Mujeres 
    Universidad de La Laguna 
    Ana M. González Ramos 
    Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

     Redes de cooperación: una herramienta para minimizar las desigualdades de género en la ciencia 
    Cooperation networks: a tool to minimize gender inequalities in science

The triumphalist messages on the incorporation of women in scientific fields however, it hides an invisible reality that only the feminist studies have addressed and displayed evidence. These studies provide analytical perspectives that reveal complex relationships between women and men shaping by male perspective of the power structures. A critical examination will reveal that formal equality does not yield real equality and, on the contrary, justifies the current discrimination based on gender. Objectivity and meritocracy veils men and women inequalities in science. This article focuses on the analysis of the situation of women researchers and the strategies to pursue high goals in their careers. In that sense, we analyze the usefulness of cooperation networks, institutional such as equality units, gender, or informal where a group of women capitalizes on their experience, through information or emotional support for other women’s benefits. For developing this argument, we are based on different bibliographic sources, the results of the survey of 700 women and men who perform research in universities and research centers, and ten case studies carried out in the project Genera: Generation of a more inclusive and competitive knowledge economy. The findings show that it is not the unique strategy, the networks based on sorority and cooperation provide advantages to improve achievements and to reduce personal costs of pursuing a high competitive career shaping by male-dominated structure of power.

Keywords: feminist studies, networks, sisterhood, cooperation, mentoring, scientific careers, patriarchy.

 

 

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